Bridges ESL provides free English language Bridges ESL Cause(s): Education & Literacy Types of service: Direct Service Application: Join anytime! lessons to individuals in the Yale and New Haven community who want or need to improve their communication skills and bridge their language gap. These individuals will acquire the English skills needed to be effective in the family, the university, the workplace, and the community. Volunteer tutors are at the heart of our program. Become a volunteer today! 56. Which of the following is TRUE in terms of health and medicine causes? A. Volunteers will provide direct support services to AIDS victims. B. AIDS Walk New Haven is targeted at Yale HIV-infected students.
C. American Red Cross at Yale encourages Yale students to donate blood. D. Those joining American Red Cross at Yale should be medical experts.
57. As a new foreign university freshman, he/she is likely to benefit from ______. A. AIDS Walk New Haven B. American Red Cross at Yale C. Best Buddies D. Bridges ESL
Personally, I love writing reviews of any kind mostly because that way I can put all my thoughts about the subject on the paper. Before we go on, I have to mention it is different when you write a review for yourself i.e. your blog or website and for your professor in college.
To an untrained eye, reviews may seem pointless. What’s the point of writing about something when other people and your professor have already read the book? Isn’t it enough to talk about it in the class?
Just as movie reviews develop your critical thinking, book reviews do the same. It is not enough to read a book and call it a day; you have to establish your opinion, your likes, and dislikes. When a professor gives you this assignment, he/she wants to see your abilities to analyze the book and use vocabulary skills to discuss different parts of the plot.
Since we are accustomed to writing book reports at a very young age, it comes as no surprise we don’t think book reviews are different than a book report. Contrary to the popular belief, book reviews and book reports are two different types of writing. Knowing how they differ is essential for writing a high-quality paper that will guarantee a good grade.
Book reports usually centre around topical details about the author and the plot of the story. On the other hand, a book review is a more complicated approach to understanding and discussing a book. It doesn’t centre around a summary of each section, but you have to carry out a thorough analysis. As you grow and develop as a student, so does your ability to think critically. You don’t just sum up what you’ve just read but analyze every piece of the puzzle in order to show the ability not only to pay attention to detail but also engage thinking critically. Here, you have to be careful that you aren’t, actually, just retelling the story.
While book reviews may contain some elements of book reports e.g. author, characters, plot, the emphasis is to provide a more detailed insight, go deeper and elaborate strengths and weaknesses of the book, and discuss the elements of the story.
You know the difference between book reports and book reviews, now what? Now you’re ready to
begin the assignment. In order to write a thorough book review, you have to pay attention to everything about the book, which is why writing down the information about the author, genre etc. is strongly advised. That’s why you’ll need a pen and notebook where you can write everything.
58. According to the passage, what should be done before starting to write a review? A. Identifying the target reader. B. Consulting with your professor. C. Developing an interest in reviews. D. Listing all your thoughts on the paper.
59. The author shows the importance of a book review mainly by ______. A. giving a solid example B. making a reasonable assumption C. drawing a valid comparison D. providing a detailed description 60. Where does the fundamental difference between a report and a review lie? A. Objective summary. B. Critical comments. C. Thorough comprehension. D. Personal abilities.
The world’s most complex biological computer, made from a group of engineered cells, could one day be implanted into the body to detect diseases and deliver treatments.
In an early research in 2012, Martin Fussenegger at ETH Zurish in Switzerland and his colleagues engineered two kidney cells to become a biological circuit capable of simple mathematics. One of the cells was able to calculate addition: the presence or absence of each of two chemicals would switch on a reaction inside the cell that would make it shine different colours. The other cell worked in the same way but could subtract amounts. This kind of biological circuit resembles a simple logic circuit in a computer. In theory, it could be used to indicate the presence of an infectious substance while in fact it failed.
Most biological reactions in the body aren’t that simple, though. They rarely rely on ―one input and one output‖ – instead, multiple inputs lead to different outputs. For instance, a high level of calcium in the body in the presence of a specific hormone may suggest one disease, but a high level of calcium along with another hormone might indicate a completely different condition.
To be more practical, biological computers need to be able to perform more complex mathematics. However, it is hard to pack multiple calculations into a single cell. To get around this, Fussenegger and his team have engineered a multicellular system, in which different cells each perform a separate calculation and pass on the results to each other.
The system has nine cells, each containing a biochemical reaction that responds to three chemical inputs – similar to an AND, NOT and OR system in a traditional electronic circuit. These cells coordinate their activities by releasing chemicals that pass from one cell to the other. Together, they form a fully biological circuit that can respond to multiple inputs.
―Although it is not at a stage yet where we can test on animals, we believe it is the most complex biological computer ever assembled,‖ says Fussenegger. ―This work addresses one of the major limitations in synthetic biology (合成生物学) – a lack of programmable devices,‖ says ángel Goni-Moreno, a synthetic biologist at Newcastle University, UK. He says that Fussenegger’s multicellular approach enables you to programme the circuit and achieve different calculations just by connecting the nine cells in different configurations (设置).
In the future, a biological computer like this could be used to monitor more complex medical conditions. For example, it could respond to a rise in calcium, a drop in a hormone and an increase in a
biomarker, which together would signal the presence of a specific type of cancer, help diagnose it and alert the user to seek appropriate treatment.
61. The underlined word ―subtract‖ in Paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ______. A. add up B. take away C. split up D. give away 62. What was the progress made in Fussenegger’s early research? A. A biological circuit was implanted in one of kidney cells. B. The indication of infectious substances became a reality. C. Engineered kidney cells could switch on biological reactions. D. Certain cells were made capable of performing mathematics.
63. What has made Fussenegger’s current multicellular system so special? A. It has all the functions of a traditional electronic circuit.
B. It is programmable and able to perform different mathematics. C. It has successfully packed multiple calculations into a single cell. D. It has been tested through a series of experiments on animals. 64. What is the best title for the passage? A. Smart cells indicating various cancers B. Electronic circuit made from multi-cells
C. Programmable cells implanted in human bodies D. Biological computer made from human cells
According to Guglielmo Cavallo and Roger Chartier, reading aloud was a common practice in the ancient world, the Middle Ages, and as late as the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Readers were ―listeners attentive to a reading voice,‖ and ―the text addressed to the ear as much as to the eye.‖ The significance of reading aloud continued well into the nineteenth century.
Using Charles Dickens’s nineteenth century as a point of departure, it would be useful to look at the familial and social uses of reading aloud and reflect on the functional change of the practice. Dickens habitually read his work to a domestic audience or friends. In his later years he also read to a broader public crowd. Chapters of reading aloud also abound in Dickens’s own literary works. More importantly, he took into consideration the Victorian practice when composing his prose, so much so that his writing is meant to be heard, not only read on the page.
Performing a literary text orally in a Victorian family is well documented. Apart from promoting a pleasant family relationship, reading aloud was also a means of protecting young people from the danger of solitary (孤独的) reading. Reading aloud was a tool for parental guidance. By means of reading aloud, parents could also introduce literature to their children, and as such the practice combined leisure and more serious purposes such as religious cultivation in the youths. Within the family, it was commonplace for the father to read aloud. Dickens read to his children: one of his surviving and often-reprinted photographs features him posing on a chair, reading to his two daughters.
Reading aloud in the nineteenth century was as much a class phenomenon as a family affair, which points to a widespread belief that Victorian readership primarily meant a middle-class readership. Those who fell outside this group tended to be overlooked by Victorian publishers. Despite this, Dickens, with his publishers Chapman and Hall, managed to distribute literary reading materials to people from different social classes by reducing the price of novels. This was also made possible with the technological and mechanical advances in printing and the spread of railway networks at the time.
Since the literacy level of this section of the population was still low before school attendance was made compulsory in 1870 by the Education Act, a considerable number of people from lower classes would listen to recitals of texts. Dickens’s readers, who were from such social backgrounds, might have heard Dickens in this manner. Several biographers of Dickens also draw attention to the fact that it was typical for his texts to be read aloud in Victorian England, and thus illiteracy was not an obstacle for reading Dickens. Reading was no longer a chiefly closeted form of entertainment practiced by the middle class at home.
A working-class home was in many ways not convenient for reading: there were too many distractions, the lighting was bad, and the home was also often half a workhouse. As a result, the Victorians from the non-middle classes tended to find relaxation outside the home such as in parks and squares, which were ideal places for the public to go while away their limited leisure time. Reading aloud, in particular public reading, to some extent blurred the distinctions between classes. The Victorian middle class defined its identity through differences with other classes. Dickens’s popularity among readers from the non-middle classes contributed to the creation of a new class of readers who read through listening.
Different readers of Dickens were not reading solitarily and ―jealously,‖ to use Walter Benjamin’s term. Instead, they often enjoyed a more communal experience, an experience that is generally lacking in today’s world. Modern audiobooks can be considered a contemporary version of the practice. However, while the twentieth- and twentieth-first-century trend for individuals to listen to audiobooks keeps some characteristics of traditional reading aloud—such as ―listeners attentive to a reading voice‖ and the ear being the focus—it is a far more solitary activity.
65. What does the author want to convey in Paragraph 1? A. The history of reading aloud. B. The significance of reading aloud. C. The development of reading practice. D. The roles of readers in reading practice.
66. How did the practice of reading aloud influence Dickens’s works? A. He started to write for a broader public crowd. B. He included more readable contents in his novels.
C. Scenes of reading aloud became common in his works. D. His works were intended to be both heard and read.
67. How many benefits did reading aloud bring to a Victorian family? A. 2. B. 3. C. 4. D. 5. 68. Where could a London steel worker possibly have gone to for reading? A. Working place. B. His/her own house. C. Nearby bookstores. D. Trafalgar Square. 69. What change did reading aloud bring to Victorian society?
A. Different classes started to appreciate and read literary works together. B. People from lower social classes became accepted as middle-class. C. The differences between classes grew less significant than before. D. A non-class society in which everyone could read started to form. 70. What is likely to be discussed after the last paragraph? A. New reading trends for individuals. B. The harm of modern audiobooks. C. The material for modern reading.
D. Reading aloud in contemporary societies.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is rushing into business. Firms of all types are using AI to forecast demand, hire workers and deal with customers. The McKinsey Global Institute, a think-tank within a consultancy, forecasts that just applying AI to marketing, sales and supply chains could create economic value of $2.7trn over the next 20 years.
Such grand forecasts fuel anxiety as well as hope. Less familiar, but just as important, is how AI will transform the workplace.
Start with the benefits. AI ought to improve productivity. Humanyze,a people analytics software provider, combines data from its badges (工牌) with employees’ calendars and e-mails to work out, say, whether office layouts favour teamwork. Slack, a workplace messaging app, helps managers assess how quickly employees accomplish tasks. Companies will see when workers are not just dozing off but also misbehaving.
Employees will gain, too. Thanks to advance in computer vision, AI can check that workers are wearing safety equipment and that no one has been harmed on the factory floor. Some will appreciate more feedback on their work and welcome a sense of how to do better.
Machines can help ensure that pay rises and promotions go to those who deserve them. That starts with hiring. People often have biases but algorithms (算法), if designed correctly, can be more unprejudiced. Software can flag patterns that people might miss.
Yet AI’s benefits will come with many potential drawbacks. Algorithms may not be free of the biases of their programmers, which canhave unintended consequences. The length of a travel may predict whether an employee will quit a job, but this focus may harm poorer applicants. Older staff might work more slowly than younger ones and could risk losing their positions if all AI looks for is productivity. And surveillance (监控) may feel Orwellian—a sensitive matter now that people have begun to question how much Facebook and other tech giants know about their private lives.
As regulators and employers weigh the pros and cons of AI in the workplace, three principles ought to guide its spread. First, data should be anonymised where possible. Microsoft, for example, has a product that shows individuals how they manage their time in the office, but gives managers information only in aggregated (整合) form. Second, the use of AI ought to be transparent. Employees should be told what technologies are being used in their workplaces and which data are being gathered. As a matter of routine, algorithms used by firms to hire, fire and promote should be tested for bias and unintended consequences. Last, countries should let individuals request their own data, whether they are ex-workers wishing to contest a dismissal or jobseekers hoping to demonstrate their ability to prospective employers.
The march of AI into the workplace calls for trade-offs between privacy and performance. A fairer, more productive workforce is a prize worth having, but not if it chains employees. Striking a balance will require thought, a willingness for both employers and employees to adapt, and a strong dose of humanity. AI Spy Passage outline Supporting details While its future in business is full of (71)▲, AI affects the workplace Introduction negatively. ●AI makesbusiness more productive by analyzing the office layout, Advantages of AI assessing the employees’ working efficiency and (72)▲ their behavior. ●AI can (73)▲ employees’ safety and provide feedback for them to better ·10·